A short overview of CRISPR-Cas technology and its application in viral disease control

A short overview of CRISPR-Cas technology and its application in viral disease control.

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Item Type: Review
Status: Published
Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11248-021-00247-w
Journal or Publication Title: Transgenic Research
Volume: 30
Number: 3
Page Range: pp. 221-238
Date: 2021
Divisions: Directed Evolution
Depositing User: General Admin
Identification Number: 10.1007/s11248-021-00247-w
ISSN: 0962-8819
Date Deposited: 10 Jun 2021 05:49

Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) together with CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins have catalysed a revolution in genetic engineering. Native CRISPR-Cas systems exist in many bacteria and archaea where they provide an adaptive immune response through sequence-specific degradation of an invading pathogen's genome. This system has been reconfigured for use in genome editing, drug development, gene expression regulation, diagnostics, the prevention and treatment of cancers, and the treatment of genetic and infectious diseases. In recent years, CRISPR-Cas systems have been used in the diagnosis and control of viral diseases, for example, CRISPR-Cas12/13 coupled with new amplification techniques to improve the specificity of sequence-specific fluorescent probe detection. Importantly, CRISPR applications are both sensitive and specific and usually only require commonly available lab equipment. Unlike the canonical Cas9 which is guided to double-stranded DNA sites of interest, Cas13 systems target RNA sequences and thus can be employed in strategies directed against RNA viruses or for transcriptional silencing. Many challenges remain for these approach, including issues with specificity and the requirement for better mammalian delivery systems. In this review, we summarize the applications of CRISPR-Cas systems in controlling mammalian viral infections. Following necessary improvements, it is expected that CRISPR-Cas systems will be used effectively for such applications in the future.

Ghorbani, Abozar
Hadifar, Shima
Salari, Roya
Izadpanah, Keramatollah
Burmistrz, Michal
Afsharifar, Alireza
Eskandari, Mohammad Hadi
Niazi, Ali
Denes, Christopher E.
Neely, G. Gregory
Last Modified: 10 Jun 2021 05:49
URI: https://eprints.centenary.org.au/id/eprint/990

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