Dietary fiber and SCFAs in the regulation of mucosal immunity

Dietary fiber and SCFAs in the regulation of mucosal immunity.

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Item Type: Article
Status: Published
Official URL:
Journal or Publication Title: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Volume: 151
Number: 2
Page Range: pp. 361-370
Date: 1 February 2023
Divisions: Molecular Cardiology
Depositing User: General Admin
Identification Number: 10.1016/j.jaci.2022.11.007
ISSN: 00916749
Date Deposited: 15 Mar 2023 02:10

Gut bacterial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have important effects on immune cells and the gut. SCFAs derive from the fermentation of dietary fiber by gut commensal bacteria. Insufficient fiber intake thus compromises SCFA production and, as a consequence, the host's physiology (particularly immune functions). We propose that many Western diseases, including those associated with impaired mucosal responses such as food allergy and asthma, may be affected by insufficient fiber intake and reduced SCFA levels in the gut and blood. Insufficient fiber intake is 1 alternative, or contributor, on top of the "hygiene hypothesis" to the rise of Western lifestyle diseases, and the 2 ideas need to be reconciled. The mechanisms by which SCFAs influence immunity and gut homeostasis are varied; they include stimulation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as GPR43 or GPR41; inhibition of histone deacetylases (and hence, gene transcription changes); and induction of intracellular metabolic changes. SCFAs modulate at many different levels to alter mucosal homeostasis, including changes to gut epithelial integrity, increases in regulatory T-cell numbers and function, and decreased expression of numerous inflammatory cytokines. There is scope for preventing and/or treating diseases by using diets that alter SCFA levels.

Tan, Jian Kai
Macia, Laurence
Mackay, Charles R.
Last Modified: 15 Mar 2023 02:10

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