Preparation and Characterization of Inhalable Ivermectin Powders as a Potential COVID-19 Therapy

Preparation and Characterization of Inhalable Ivermectin Powders as a Potential COVID-19 Therapy.

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Item Type: Article
Official URL:
Journal or Publication Title: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Volume: 35
Number: 5
Page Range: pp. 239-251
Date: 11 March 2022
Divisions: Tuberculosis
Depositing User: General Admin
Identification Number: 10.1089/jamp.2021.0059
ISSN: 1941-2711
Date Deposited: 08 Jan 2023 22:46

<b><i>Background:</i></b> Ivermectin has received worldwide attention as a potential COVID-19 treatment after showing antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 <i>in vitro.</i> However, the pharmacokinetic limitations associated with oral administration have been postulated as limiting factors to its bioavailability and efficacy. These limitations can be overcome by targeted delivery to the lungs. In this study, inhalable dry powders of ivermectin and lactose crystals were prepared and characterized for the potential treatment of COVID-19. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Ivermectin was co-spray dried with lactose monohydrate crystals and conditioned by storage at two different relative humidity points (43% and 58% RH) for a week. The <i>in vitro</i> dispersion performance of the stored powders was examined using a medium-high resistance Osmohaler connecting to a next-generation impactor at 60 L/min flow rate. The solid-state characteristics including particle size distribution and morphology, crystallinity, and moisture sorption profiles of raw and spray-dried ivermectin samples were assessed by laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic vapor sorption. <b><i>Results:</i></b> All the freshly spray-dried formulation (T0) and the conditioned samples could achieve the anticipated therapeutic dose with fine particle dose of 300 μg, FPF<sub>recovered</sub> of 70%, and FPF<sub>emitted</sub> of 83%. In addition, the formulations showed a similar volume median diameter of 4.3 μm and span of 1.9. The spray-dried formulations were stable even after conditioning and exposing to different RH points as ivermectin remained amorphous with predominantly crystalline lactose. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> An inhalable and stable dry powder of ivermectin and lactose crystals was successfully formulated. This powder inhaler ivermectin candidate therapy appears to be able to deliver doses that could be safe and effective to treat the SARS-COV-2 infection. Further development of this therapy is warranted.

Keywords: COVID-19; dry powder aerosol; inhalable ivermectin; lactose; spray drying.

Albariqi, Ahmed H.
Ke, Wei-Ren
Khanal, Dipesh
Kalfas, Stefanie
Tang, Patricia
Britton, Warwick J
Drago, John
Chan, Hak-Kim
Last Modified: 08 Jan 2023 22:46

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