Increased complications of COVID-19 in people with cardiovascular disease: Role of the renin–angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) dysregulation

Increased complications of COVID-19 in people with cardiovascular disease: Role of the renin–angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) dysregulation.

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Item Type: Review
Status: Published
Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2021.109738
Journal or Publication Title: Chemico-Biological Interactions
Volume: 351
Page Range: p. 109738
Date: 3 November 2021
Divisions: UTS Centre for Inflammation
Depositing User: General Admin
Identification Number: 10.1016/j.cbi.2021.109738
ISSN: 00092797
Date Deposited: 07 Dec 2021 09:35
Abstract:

The rapid spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has had a dramatic negative impact on public health and economies worldwide. Recent studies on COVID-19 complications and mortality rates suggest that there is a higher prevalence in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) patients. Past investigations on the associations between pre-existing CVDs and susceptibility to coronavirus infections including SARS-CoV and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), have demonstrated similar results. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This has impeded adequate risk stratification and treatment strategies for CVD patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections. Generally, dysregulation of the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and the counter regulator, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a hallmark of cardiovascular risk and CVD. ACE2 is the main host receptor for SARS-CoV-2. Although further studies are required, dysfunction of ACE2 after virus binding and dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) signaling may worsen the outcomes of people affected by COVID-19 and with preexisting CVD. Here, we review the current knowledge and outline the gaps related to the relationship between CVD and COVID-19 with a focus on the RAAS. Improved understanding of the mechanisms regulating viral entry and the role of RAAS may direct future research with the potential to improve the prevention and management of COVID-19.

Keywords: ACE2; COVID-19; Cardiovascular diseases; Coronavirus; RAAS; SARS-CoV-2.

Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Creators:
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Augustine, Robin
UNSPECIFIED
S, Abhilash
UNSPECIFIED
Nayeem, Ajisha
UNSPECIFIED
Salam, Shaheen Abdul
UNSPECIFIED
Augustine, Priya
UNSPECIFIED
Dan, Pan
UNSPECIFIED
Maureira, Pablo
UNSPECIFIED
Mraiche, Fatima
UNSPECIFIED
Gentile, Carmine
UNSPECIFIED
Hansbro, Philip M.
UNSPECIFIED
McClements, Lana
UNSPECIFIED
Hasan, Anwarul
UNSPECIFIED
Last Modified: 07 Dec 2021 09:35
URI: https://eprints.centenary.org.au/id/eprint/1170

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